Glossary of Terms

Apprenticeship: An arrangement between a developing educator and an employer (for example, a child care program) that allows the educator to participate in on-the-job professional learning and related coursework. Apprenticeship programs are often sponsored by government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and/or institutions of higher education.

Consolidation model: Some states have decided to align program administration across state agencies, rather than creating new entities or consolidating existing offices. In these cases, memorandums of understanding or formal agreements dictating each office’s responsibilities can be key to seamless coordination and setting clear administrative responsibilities. Source: Atchison, B. & Diffey, L. (2018). Governance in early childhood education. Education Commission of the States. 

Coordination model: In most states, programmatic authority for early childhood is spread across multiple agencies that are expected to collaborate with each other, often through formal structures. This is the most prevalent approach to early childhood governance and may occur in many ways such as through formal agreements across agencies, a governor’s coordinating office, and/or a children’s cabinet. Source: Atchison, B. & Diffey, L. (2018). Governance in early childhood education. Education Commission of the States. 

Cost estimation model: “Most private industries commonly use cost estimation models or ‘cost models’ to analyze the costs of delivering a good or service. For the child care sector, these basic business tools can help calculate the cost of providing quality care. To design effective government intervention, it’s important to know how it impacts the child care business model and the market. Cost models can be the key to understanding these impacts” Source: Bipartisan Policy Center. (2022).

Creation model: A few states have looked to create new entities responsible for managing all early learning and early childhood programs across the state. These offices become executive branch entities or new departments, and they typically hold most of the early childhood programs and responsibilities. Source: Regenstein, E. & Lipper, K. (2013).

Data Visualization Tool: A tool that makes aggregate data related to early childhood education programs and services available for public view. 

De-identified: De-identified data describes records that have a re-identification code and have enough personally identifiable information removed or obscured so that the remaining information does not identify an individual and there is no reasonable basis to believe that the information can be used to identify an individual. The re-identification code may allow the recipient to match information received from the same source. Source: U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.).

Early childhood integrated data system (ECIDS): Such a system “collects, integrates, maintains, stores, and reports information from early childhood programs across multiple agencies.” Source: Institute of Education Sciences. (n.d.) 

Early intervention: An offering of services to support infants and toddlers (from birth to age 3) who have disabilities or delays in their development.

Federated system: A sharing system that does not consolidate all data in one warehouse.

Governance: The practice of coordinating institutions, processes and norms to guide collective decision-making and action. Governance provides structure in the form of authority, accountability, and a coherent strategy for achieving a birth-to-age-five system that is aligned with K-3. Source: Regenstein, E. & Lipper, K. (2013).

Mixed-delivery system: Mixed-delivery systems are structured to enable some—or all—publicly-funded pre-K slots to be offered in diverse settings that meet health, safety, and performance standards. For example, in a mixed-delivery system, pre-K slots are offered in child care programs, including center-based child care and family child care homes, that operate for a full day and full year. This means that a variety of settings can meet a parent’s needs for child care that aligns with their work hours. Source: Morris, S. & Smith, L. (2021).

P-20 longitudinal data system (LDS): Such a system “integrates unit-level, high-quality student, staff, and program data that are linked across entities and over time” and spans sectors from multiple early childhood programs to higher education or beyond. Source: Institute of Education Sciences. (n.d.).

Pay parity: Provides community-based early educators with wages (and sometimes benefits) comparable to those received by public-school educators with similar education and experience levels.

Pay scale: A scale (sometimes referred to as a “schedule”) “with clearly differentiated salary increments based on qualifications and years of experience, which provides guidance for salary increases over time.” Source: McLean, C., Austin, L.J.E., Whitebook, M., & Olson, K.L. (2021).

Professional learning: Learning and support activities (e.g., coaching) that help develop educators’ competencies and skills.

Subsidy rate: The federal Child Care Development Fund (CCDF), a program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families, partially funds state-run child care subsidies that lower the cost of child care for low-income families while parents work, go to school, or attend job training. The CCDF does not cover the cost of subsidies for all families eligible under federal guidelines, and the remaining need is not fully met through other funding sources. Source: Chien, N. (2017).

Targeted Pre-K: Pre-K programs in which eligibility is limited by child or family characteristics, most commonly income.

Universal Pre-K: Programs in which the sole eligibility criterion is age.