Denver Preschool Program (DPP)


  • Public Pre-K

Denver, Colorado

In 2006, the Denver Preschool Program  (DPP) was funded through a 0.12% sales tax approved by voters in Ballot Question 1A; this was increased to 0.15% in 2014 when voters reauthorized and extended the program to 2026. The DPP offers tuition credits to all four-year-old children in the city. In addition to tuition assistance, the DPP also provides grants for professional development for early childhood educators. The program—which resulted from extensive lobbying and collaboration with businesses, parents, and educators in The Preschool Matters campaign and in the government-led Invest In Success initiative—has made a significant investment in early childhood education in Denver. To date, it has provided over $168 million in tuition support and over $25 million in professional development and has benefited more than 68,000 students, covering around 60% of Denver’s four-year-olds.


Connections to Key Early Learning Study at Harvard (ELS@H) Findings:

Strong infrastructure and systems – including governance structures and data systems – are key aspects of high-quality early education and care. And research suggests there is a need for more accessible, affordable, and high-quality early education within a mixed-delivery system; strengthening infrastructure and systems is one important way states and cities can take action to address these needs and accomplish these goals.

Findings from the Early Learning Study at Harvard (ELS@H) that connect to the need for more robust infrastructure and systems, including data systems:

  • Families rely on a range of formal (e.g., Head Start, center-based care, public pre-K) and more informal (e.g., home-based, relative care) early education settings; when choosing a setting for their child, families balance many logistical constraints and personal preferences.
  • But for many families – and especially low- and middle-income families – early education choices remain tightly constrained due to issues of affordability and supply.
  • No one early education setting type is inherently of higher quality than another; children develop and learn well in every setting type, and in the study, all setting types showed room to grow in quality.
  • We have learned a great deal from this groundbreaking, large-scale study. Nevertheless, there is still much to learn about what children, families, and educators need, and about what “works” – for whom and under what circumstances – across all the diverse settings where young children learn and grow.
Learn More about ELS@H Findings

Learn more about Denver

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  • The city population is 711,463
  • The percentage of children under age 5 is 5.7%
  • The median family income among households with children is $101,200.00